Error Handling In Visual Basic

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Despite your best efforts to cover all possible contingencies, run-time errors will occur in your applications. You can and should do all you can to prevent them, but when they happen you have to handle them.

Introduction

The various functions, statements, properties and methods available in Visual Basic and the components used in Visual Basic expect to deal with certain types of data and behavior in your applications. For example, the CDate() function can convert a value to a Date variable. The function is remarkably flexible in the type of information it can accept, but it expects to receive data that it can use to derive a date. If you provide input that it can't convert, it raises error number 13 - "Type mismatch" - essentially saying "I can't handle this input data."

In an application, this type of error may be a program logic error (you simply passed the wrong data) or it may be a data entry error on the part of the user (you asked for a date and the user typed a name). In the first case, you need to debug the program to fix the mistake. However, there is no way for you to anticipate the behavior of the end users of the application. If the user enters data you can't handle, you need to deal with the situation.

Dealing with errors at run-time is a two step process:

  1. Trap the Error
    Before you can deal with an error, you need to know about it. You use VB's On Error statement to setup an error trap.
  2. Handle the Error
    Code in your error handler may correct an error, ignore it, inform the user of the problem, or deal with it in some other way. You can examine the properties of the Err object to determine the nature of the error. Once the error has been dealt with, you use the Resume statement to return control to the regular flow of the code in the application.
In addition to dealing with run-time errors, you may at times want to generate them. This is often done in class modules built as components of ActiveX server DLLs or EXEs. It is considered good programming practice to separate the user interface from the program logic as much as possible, so if a server component cannot deal with an error, it should raise the error in its client application rather than simply display an error message for the user.
In VB5, there is an option that allows you to specify that an application has been designed for unattended execution (this is typically used for remote server applications). If you plan to allow the application to run unattended or on a remote computer, you can't simply display an error message because there will be nobody there to see it or dismiss the message box.

Trapping Errors at Run-Time

Before you can do anything to deal with a run-time error, you need to capture the error. You use the On Error statement to enable an error trap. On Error will redirect the execution in the event of a run-time error. There are several forms of the On Error statement:
  • On Error Goto label
    This form of the On Error statement redirects program execution to the line label specified. When you use this form of On Error, a block of error handling code is constructed following the label.
  • On Error Resume Next
    This form of the On Error statement tells VB to continue with the line of code following the line where the error occurred. With this type of error trap, you would normally test for an error at selected points in the program code where you anticipate that an error may occur.
  • On Error Goto 0
    On Error Goto 0 disables any error handler within the current procedure. A run-time error that occurs when no error handler is enabled or after an On Error Goto 0 is encountered will be handled using VB's default error handling logic.
It's not necessary to code an error handling routine in every procedure you write in Visual Basic. If an error is raised in a procedure, VB will work its way back up through the call tree looking for an error handler.
Public Sub SubA()
On Error Goto ProcError

  ' other code
  MsgBox FuncA()

ProcExit:
  Exit Sub

ProcError:
  MsgBox Err.Description
  Resume ProcExit

End Sub
Private Function FuncA() As Date

  FuncA = CDate("hi there")

End Function
In this example, procedure SubA enables an error handler using the statement On Error Goto ProcError. When function FuncA is called in the MsgBox statement, the On Error Goto ProcError handler is still enabled. The CDate function in FuncA will generate error 13 (type mismatch) because CDate can't make a date from the input data. VB first looks in FuncA for an error handler. None was enabled, so the error is propogated back up the call tree to SubA. Since there is an error handler in SubA, program execution is redirected to the ProcError label in SubA. The MsgBox statement displays a description of the error and the Resume statement directs VB to continue execution at the ProcExit label.

There are some situations where VB cannot pass an error back up the call tree. This applies to Sub Main, most event procedures, and the Class_Terminate event procedure. Sub Main (if defined in the project property sheet) is the first code executed, so there is no procedure higher in the tree at application startup time. Most event procedures are also fired by Visual Basic when no other code is running so these are also at the top of the tree. Finally, the Class_Terminate event of class modules cannot raise an error because this event can also occur when no other code is executing in the application.

If an error is generated in one of these types of procedures and no error handler is enabled in the procedure, VB invokes its own default error handler, displays a message, and terminates the application. Because of this behavior, it is vital that you always code an error handler in Sub Main, all event procedures, and the Class_Terminate event for class modules.

Unlike the Class_Terminate event, the Class_Initialize event of a class module can raise an error or allow it to go untrapped. However, it is considered good programming practice to have classes trap their own errors, deal with them if possible, and if necessary raise errors explicitly, providing a number and description defined within the class.

You can code your classes to map any error the class encounters to class-defined error numbers, but given the large number of potential errors that could occur in an application, that may not always be practical. An alternative is to have the class assign specific numbers and descriptions to errors that are specific to problems with the code or data in the class (such as a value that violates a rule for the data) but pass out standard VB errors (such as error 13 - type mismatch) as is. This allows applications using the class to explicitly handle the errors exclusive to the class with customized code, but handle standard VB errors with more generic code.

Regardless of the approach you take, you must always ensure that private data within the class is valid and that code within the class cleans up any local or module level object variables it creates. This may require you to setup an error handler that traps errors, cleans up local object variables, and then raises the same error again.


Building Error Handlers

Trapping an error using the On Error statement is only the first step in dealing with run-time errors in your code. You must also deal with the error in some way, even if the error handling code is as simple as ignoring the error (a perfectly valid approach in some situations) or displaying a message for the user.

The first step in handling an error is determining the nature of the error. This is accomplished by examining the properties of Visual Basic's Err object. The Err object includes the following properties:

  • Number
    This is the error number that was raised.
  • Description
    This contains a descriptive message about the error. Depending on the error, the description may or may not be useful. (Microsoft Access, for example, has the the infamous error message "There is no message for this error.")
  • Source
    The Source property tells you what object generated the error.
  • HelpContext
    If a help file has been defined for the component that raised the error, this property will give you the help context ID. You can use this property along with the HelpFile property to display context sensitive help for errors in your application or as a debugging aid.
  • HelpFile
    This is the name of the help file that contains additional information about the error (if a help file has been provided).
It is important that you rely only on the error number to determine the nature of the error. While the Description and other properties may contain useful information, only the Number property is a reliable indicator of the exact error that occurred.

A common approach in coding an error handler is to build a Select Case block based on the Number property of the Err object:

Public Sub SubA()
On Error Goto ProcError

  ' code that raises an error

ProcExit:
  Exit Sub

ProcError:
  Select Case Err.Number
    Case X
      ' handle X
    Case Y
      ' handle Y
    Case Z
      ' handle Z
    Case Else
      ' default
      MsgBox Err.Description
      Resume ProcExit
  End Select

End Sub
X, Y, and Z may be literal numbers (Case 13 ' type mismatch) or, if they are available, symbolic constants representing the numbers.
If you are building a class module that will raise class-defined errors, you should provide a public enumeration in the class that defines constants for any errors raised by the class. By providing constants, code that creates objects defined by the class can use the constants instead of the literal numbers and protect itself from changes in the actual numbers.
Once you have trapped and handled the error, you need to tell Visual Basic where to continue with program execution. There are several options available when an error handling block is entered using On Error Goto label:
  • Resume
    The Resume statement tells VB to continue execution with the line that generated the error.
  • Resume Next
    Resume Next instructs Visual Basic to continue execution with the line following the line that generated the error. This allows you to skip the offending code.
  • Resume label
    This allows you to redirect execution to any label within the current procedure. The label may be a location that contains special code to handle the error, an exit point that performs clean up operations, or any other point you choose.
  • Exit
    You can use Exit Sub, Exit Function, or Exit Property to break out of the current procedure and continue execution at whatever point you were at when the procedure was called.
  • End
    This is not recommended, but you can use the End statement to immediately terminate your application. Remember that if you use End, your application is forcibly terminated. No Unload, QueryUnload, or Terminate event procedures will be fired. This is the coding equivalent of a gunshot to the head for your application.
In addition to these statements, you can also call the Clear method of the Err object to clear the current error. This is most often used with inline error handling, as shown below:
Public Sub CreateFile(sFilename As String)

  On Error Resume Next
  ' the next line will raise an error if the file 
  ' doesn't exist, but we don't care because the 
  ' point is to kill it if it does anyway.
  Kill sFilename
  Err.Clear

  ' code to create a file

End Sub
This isn't a very robust example. There are many other things besides a file that doesn't exist that could cause the Kill statement to fail. The file may be read-only, there may be a network permissions error, or some other problem.

Handling Errors You Can't Handle

In most cases you can anticipate the most common errors and build code to deal with them. The error handling code might be as simple as a message to the user such as "This field requires a valid date." In some cases, however, you will encounter errors you didn't anticipate and you must find a way to deal with them.

There are two general approaches you can take to handling unanticipated errors:

  1. Assume that the error is not fatal to the application.
    Most errors will not be fatal to an application. The error may have been bad data provided by a user, a file that was not found, etc. Normally these kinds of errors can be corrected by the user and the application can continue. A default case in an error handler can simply display a message and exit the current procedure or continue.
  2. Assume that the error is fatal and the application must be terminated.
    In some cases, any error may be an application killer. This should be rare because this kind of error should be explicitly handled, if necessary by providing the user with the tools or information necessary to correct the situation. However, if a situation occurs where an unanticipated error is fatal, you must be sure to clean up after yourself before you shut down the application by unloading all forms and releasing any object variables you have created.
You should try to avoid the latter situation at all times. Displaying a message and shutting down or - worse yet - just pulling the application out from under the user will not be well received. If you must terminate an application due to some disastrous situation, be sure to provide as much information to the user as you can so that the situation can be resolved. An even better option is to code your error handlers to call code that corrects severe problems. For example, if you are designing a database application and encounter a corrupted database file, the error handling code could give the user the option of attempting to repair the damaged file. If a file cannot be found where it should be, write code to either look for it or give the user a file open dialog box so they can tell you where it went.

Raising Your Own Errors

There may be times when you need to generate errors in your code. This happens most often in class modules, but you can raise an error anywhere in a Visual Basic application. You raise an error by calling the Raise method of the Err object. Not surprisingly, the parameters of the Raise method are the same as the properties of the Err object: Number, Description, Source, HelpContext, and HelpFile. The values you provide for these parameters are available to error handling code that deals with the error you generate.

When you raise an error, you should make the information you provide via the Err object as informative as possible so that error handling code that deals with the error has the best possible opportunity to handle it.

  • Number
    You can raise any of the standard VB error numbers or provide your own number. If you are raising application-defined errors, you need to add the intrinsic constant vbObjectError to the number you raise so that your number does not conflict with built in error numbers.
  • Description
    Make the description as informative as possible. If invalid data is provided, it may be helpful to make that data part of the error message.
  • Source
    The Source provides the name of the object that generated the error. For example, if a Jet Database object raises an error, the Source property is "DAO.Database".
  • HelpContext
    If you provide a help file with the component or application, use the HelpContext parameter to provide a context ID. This can then be passed on to the MsgBox statement so that context sensitive help about the error is available.
  • HelpFile
    This is the name of the help file and is used in conjunction with the HelpContext parameter.
The following example is a hypothetical property procedure for a class module:
' in the declarations section
Private mDate As Date

Public Enum MyClassErrors
  errInvalidDate
  ' other errors
End Enum

' a property procedure
Public Property Let Date(vntDate As Variant)
' a variant is used to allow the property
' procedure to attempt to convert the value
' provided to a date

  If IsDate(vntDate) Then
    mDate = CDate(vntDate)
  Else
    ' invalid data
    Err.Raise _
        Number:=errInvalidDate, _
        Description:=CStr(vntDate) & " is not a valid date.", _
        Source:="Foo.MyClass"
        ' help context and file go here if a help file is available
  End If

End Property

In this example, the property procedure tests for a valid date using the IsDate function. If the data provided is not a date, an error is raised using the constant from the error enumeration in the declarations section of the class module and a description that includes the bad data and the nature of the error.

Summary

Handling run-time errors is something all applications must do if they are to be robust and reliable.

The key points for error handling are:

  • There are two steps to handling run-time errors:
    1. Trap the error by enabling an error handler using the On Error statement.
    2. Handle the error by examining the properties of the Err object and writing code to deal with the problem.
  • Error handlers can be dedicated blocks of code enabled by using On Error Goto label or can be inline handlers enabled by using On Error Resume Next.
  • You can raise your own errors by calling the Raise method of the Err object.
  • Do your best to handle run-time errors rather than just inform the user of the problem, but if you can't do anything but display a message, make it as informative as possible.
  • Avoid terminating the application if at all possible.
The Err object was introduced in Visual Basic 4.0. For backward compatibility, VB continues to support the Err and Error statements and functions. Any new code should be using the Err object and legacy code should be converted to use the Err object.

By Joe Garrick

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Error handeling through events.

I've not seen anything addressing the problem I'm running in to:
Application A instantiates object 1
Object 1 instanstiates object 2 with events.
object 1 traps an event initiated from object 2.
The event handler in object 1 raises an error.
VB does not propigate the error through the event and terminates abruptly in the event handler in object 1.

Am I missing something or does VB 6 not support this type of construct for error handeling?

About Err.Raise syntax

I see you prefer this syntax:

Err.Raise Number:=515, Description:="...", Source:=App.EXEName 
' vs 
Err.Raise 515 Or vbObjectError, App.EXEName, "..."

...and just wonder if there some benefit of to do that? Thanks

how to fix error vb6

it's a great tutorial. But simple vb6 developers will face problem to follow this. So you may check the above link out.

Error 13

Getting error for below code:

Set OraSession = CreateObject("OracleInProcServer.XOraSession")
'Set OraDatabase = OraSession.OpenDatabase("mydb" & CStr(mydb), "username/password" & CStr(username) / CStr(password), 0&)
'Set OraDatabase = OraSession.OpenDatabase("mydb" & CStr(a), "username/password" & CStr(b) / CStr(c), 0&)

a = "" & (mydb)
b = "" & (username)
c = "" & (password)

Set OraDatabase = OraSession.OpenDatabase(CStr(a), CStr(b) / CStr(c), 0)

Thank you for this

Thank you for this article.... it is so helpful....

Glad you found it helpful

Glad you found it helpful please help others find it by linking to it, adding it to digg, facebook, etc.

Private Sub MNU4_Click() On

Private Sub MNU4_Click()
On error GoTo Ot
Com.CommPort = 4
Com.PortOpen = true
Exit Sub

Ot :
MsgBox(Err. Description)
End Sub

what does this piece of code means ??

A click was hit and in the

A click was hit and in the code you will open the Serial port 4 in case there is an error you will catch it and send the Error number

Cheap Light Pink iPAD 3 Cases

I need to try this with my yogert.

Adventure Quest shows "Processing Error" HELP!

I want to complete my trainer.:S

i have primary key voilation

i have primary key voilation error in datagrid?
hw to inform user regarding the error using on error?
thnks in advance

How do i fix this error?

Hello im using visual basic 6.0 and i will make a Club Penguin Trainer but when i try to save the file it says: System Error &H80004005 (-2147467259).

please help me!!

Please advise me!

Dear Sr/Madam,

I am running a VB program but I am encountering an error that displays 424 objects required.
So If you are ok, please advise me how I do to clean this error.

Thanks for your care!

424 Object Required

Dear friend,
check for all the objects you have called in your code are present on your form...
i.e if you are writing text1.text ="ABC"
and is showing you error object required it means there is no text1 (textbox name text1)is present on your form.....

VB good

Your article is really very unique view.
From this article I learned a lot.

How to clean up allocated resources

I have a question about how to clean up allocated resources on error.
In the below code, should I COPY the last instance of the "Close FileNumber" line to immediately after the declaration of the ProcExit: label, or MOVE it, or leave it alone?

]
Function GetURL() As String
    Dim TempFileName As String
    Dim FileNumber As Integer
    Dim file_line As String
    On Error GoTo ProcError
 
    TempFileName = "C:\tmp\myConfig.txt"
    FileNumber = FreeFile
 
    Open TempFileName For Input As FileNumber
    Do While Not EOF(FileNumber)
        Line Input #FileNumber, file_line
        If Not LCase(Left(file_line, 4)) <> "url " Then
            Close FileNumber
            GetURL = Mid(file_line, 4)
            Exit Function
        End If
    Loop
 
    ' Close the file.
    Close FileNumber
 
ProcExit:
    GetURL = Nothing
    Exit Function
 
ProcError:
    MsgBox Err.Description
    Resume ProcExit
 
    GetURL = Nothing
End Function

RE How to clean up allocated resources

Add 'On Error Resume Next' line just after the ProcExit: and MOVE the Close (FileNumber) line just after the new Resume Next line.
The is apparent also a logic error in the code at the line If Not LCase(Left(file_line, 4)) <> "url " Then
This should be written either as If Not LCase(Left(file_line, 4)) = "url " Then or should be If LCase(Left(file_line, 4)) <> "url " Then
Otherwise I would assume that you are trying to search for everything except 'url', which would not make much sense since the function is named GetURL.

Anyhow, it is good practice to only allow one exit point for any function. So given all of this, here is the function rewritten with corrections:

Function GetURL() As String

Dim TempFileName As String
Dim FileNumber As Integer
Dim file_line As String
Dim URLTest As String

On Error GoTo ProcError
'inits
GetURL = ""
TempFileName = "C:\tmp\myConfig.txt"
FileNumber = FreeFile

Open TempFileName For Input As FileNumber

Do While Not EOF(FileNumber)
Line Input #FileNumber, file_line
URLTest = LCase(Left(file_line, 4))
If URLTest = "url " Then
GetURL = Mid(file_line, 4)
'try to design for one exit point
GoTo ProcExit
End If
Loop

ProcExit:
On Error Resume Next
' Close the file.
Close (FileNumber)
Exit Function

ProcError:

MsgBox (Err.Description)
Resume ProcExit

End Function

run-time error '-2147417851' method of object failed

Hi,
We have a VB application which run on Citrix server 2000 and it is working without having any problems. We are upgrading server to Citrix 2003 and we are testing the existing application but we are facing a problem with one error for one of VB component. Error message is:
"run-time error '-2147417851' method of object failed".
We are getting this error especially, when program is trying to create a excel file in citrix server and deleting a file (We have managed delete in other way). We have checked that access rights at server level and observered that both are same.
Please help us on this. Very urgent ugrade.

Regards
ARK

hmmm.....tell me if ur

hmmm.....tell me if ur application run...it has been two years..

hmmm.....tell me if ur

hmmm.....tell me if ur application run...it has been two years..

solution

try to compile it properly then it will be ok ...

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