Getting Extended Info From WAV Files In Visual Basic

Level:
Level2

If you've ever wondered how sound applications can show the kilohertz and samples per second information about a waveform file (.WAV), the answer lies in the RIFF file format.

The RIFF file format is designed to be as generic as possible. It is used for waveform, AVI, palette, and other information standards that may need to be mixed and used together. Generally speaking, though, any file with a WAV extension will only contain waveform data.

RIFF provides information in chunks and subchunks. The header for each chunk describes the length of the chunk and the type of data the chunk contains (WAVE, for instance, is the string identifying a WAVE chunk).

The Wave subchunk is immediately followed by the WAVE Format Chunk. It is this small chunk that defines the structure of the waveform data that will follow. It defines the format of the waveform, the number of channels used (with 0 being mono, 1 being stereo), the sampling rate, the kilohertz at which is was recorded, and the data block size. Of these, only mono/stereo and the sampling rate are likely to be of interest unless you intend to write your own custom waveform player.

The code that follows is designed to be cut and pasted into a MODULE. If you paste it into a form or class, you will need to change the PUBLIC keywords to PRIVATE.

Option Explicit

'Type n, Mono/Stereo, 8/16 bit sample
'These constants are not used internally, and
'can be safely deleted if you do not intend to use them
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_1M08 = &H1
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_1M16 = &H4
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_1S08 = &H2
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_1S16 = &H8
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_2M08 = &H10
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_2M16 = &H40
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_2S08 = &H20
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_2S16 = &H80
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_4M08 = &H100
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_4M16 = &H400
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_4S08 = &H200
Public Const WAVE_FORMAT_4S16 = &H800

'BUG FIX
'Binary representations of strings
Public Const RIFF_ID = 1179011410
Public Const RIFF_WAVE = 1163280727
Public Const RIFF_FMT = 544501094

'Typical header of a simple RIFF WAVE file
Public Type WAVInfo
    Riff_Format As Long
    chunk_size As Long
    ChunkID As Long
    fmt As Long
    Wave_Format As Integer
    Channels As Integer             '0 = mono, 1 = stereo
    SamplesPerSecond As Long
    AverageBytesPerSecond As Long   '11.025kHz, 22.05kHz, etc
    BlockAlign As Integer           'Size of blocks for low level playback
End Type
Public Function GetWaveInfo(Byval filename As String, Byref w As WAVInfo) _
    As Boolean

    Dim ff As Integer
    ff = FreeFile
    
    On Error GoTo ehandler
    Open filename For Binary Access Read As #ff
    
    On Error GoTo ehandler_fo
    Get #ff, , w
    Close #ff
    
    On Error GoTo ehandler
    
    If w.Riff_Format = RIFF_ID And w.ChunkID = _
        RIFF_WAVE And w.fmt = RIFF_FMT Then
        
        GetWaveInfo = True
    Else
        GetWaveInfo = False
    End If
    
    Exit Function
    
ehandler_fo:
    Close #ff
ehandler:
    GetWaveInfo = False
    
End Function

I had originally defined all of the string chunk identifiers (RIFF, WAVE, and 'fmt ') as being strings in our user-defined data type WavInfo. But as fate would have it, I kept getting 'Bad File Handle' errors when I used the string data types with VB5.0. So I elected to use a rather lengthy binary representation of the same information, which follows the BUG FIX comment. I suspect that it has something to do with Unicode, but really don't care to chase it down.

An example of using GetWaveInfo appears as:

Private Sub Command1_Click()
   Dim rinfo As WAVInfo
   Dim target As String
   
   target = CurDir$ + "\Reminder.wav"
   
   If GetWaveInfo(target, rinfo) Then
   'Add code to do something with rinfo
   End If
End Sub

For those of you curious about the error handling routine, I will explain why two labels are used. An error in this function can occur either with a file open or without a file open. If the error handler tried to close the file when it was not opened, the error handler would then generate an error (which would be _very_ bad) and this simple example shows how to handle an error at different points within a function or subroutine.

By Tim Kilgore

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